Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

School Name

Annsley Frazier Thornton School of Education



Major Advisor

Grant Smith

Second Advisor

Elizabeth Dinkins

Third Advisor

Relebohile Moletsane

Fourth Advisor

Steven Kniffley


Apartheid-era Bantu Education was engineered to underdevelop Indigenous Black South Africans and keep them at the periphery of society. Nevertheless, demands to decolonize South African education existed during apartheid and are being made today. This research is a study into how Indigenous South Africans who received an apartheid-era education came to acquire a decolonized education. The research further explores how these Indigenous South Africans promote and practice a decolonized education. The most significant findings of this research are the resistance to Bantu Education in its many various forms, Indigenous South African student commitment to education, relocation and migration trends of Indigenous South Africans during the apartheid protest era, the transcendent, unifying power of protest songs, multidisciplinary decolonization of education work in practice, and the decolonial imperative of community upliftment.

Available for download on Tuesday, August 20, 2024